Mechanical and Thermal Properties of LENR Modified Epoxy Composite
M A Abu Bakar*
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi MARA, (UiTM) Shah Alam
School of Applied Physics
Faculty of Science & Technology
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi
Epoxy resins are considered as one of the most important classes of thermosetting polymers for many industrial applications and become an important matrix in polymer composites. However polymerization of this resin resulted in brittleness due to high crosslinking level. Due to this matter, many efforts have been made to improve the toughness of cured epoxy resins by the introduction of rigid particles, reactive rubbers, interpenetrating polymer networks and thermoplastics within the matrix. Incorporation of small amount of rubber is one of the approaches to improve fracture toughness of the epoxy matrix. In this work, the flexural and impact properties of liquid epoxidized natural rubber (LENR) modified epoxy composites have been studied. Addition of LENR increased the impact strength of the epoxy resin. The impact strength increased from to 18.357 kJ/m2, when modified with 5.5 phr LENR. The SEM analysis shows uniform dispersion of rubber particles within the epoxy matrix with average particle size less than 1?m.
: Epoxy resin, modified epoxy, liquid epoxidized natural rubber (LENR), impact strength, toughened epoxy
 Dipa Ray and Jogeswari Rout (2005). Natural Fibers, Biopolymers and Biocomposites, Taylor and Francis, 291-341.
 Payam Saadati, Habibollah Baharvand, Azam Rahimi and Jalil Morshedian (2005). Effect of modified liquid rubber on increasing toughness of epoxy resins, Iranian Polymer J, 14(7), 637-646.
 Calabrese, L. and Valenza, A. (2003). Effect of CTBN rubber inclusions on the curing kinetic of DGEBA-DGEBF epoxy resin, European Polymer J, 39, 1355-1363.
 Raju Thomas, Sebastien Durix, Christophe Sinturel, Tolib Omonov, Sara Goossens, Gabriel Groninckx, Paula Moldenaers and Sabu Thomas (2007). Cure kinetics, morphology and miscibility of modified DGEBA-based epoxy resin – Effects of a liquid rubber inclusion, Polymer, 48, 1695-1710.
 Auad, M.L., Frontini, P.M., Borrajo, J. and Aranguren, M.I. (2001). Liquid rubber modified vinyl ester resins: fracture and mechanical behavior,Polymer, 42, 3723-3730.
 Jyongsik Jang and Hojung Yang (2000). Toughness improvement of carbon-fibre/polybenzoxazine composites by rubber modification, Composites Science and Technology, 60, 457-463.
 Ozturk, A., Kaynak, C. and Tincer, T. (2001). Effects of liquid rubber modification on the behavior of epoxy resin, European Polymer J, 37, 2353-2363.
 Raju Thomas, Ding Yumei, He Yuelong, Yang Le, Paula Moldenaers, Yang Weimin, Tibor Czigany and Sabu Thomas (2008). Miscibility, morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of a DGEBA based epoxy resin toughened with a liquid rubber, Polymer, 49, 278-294.
 Cevdet Kaynak, Ozgur Orgun and Teoman Tincer (2005). Matrix and interface modification of short carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy, Polymer Testing, 24, 455-462.
 Laurent Jayle, Clive B. Bucknall, Ivana K. Partridge, John N. Hay, Alan Fernyhough and Ikuo Nozue (1996). Ternary blends of epoxy, rubber and polycarbonate: phase behaviour, mechanical properties and chemical interactions, Polymer, 37(10), 1897-1996.
 Abdullah, I. and Zakaria, Z. (1989). Pendepolimeran fotokimia getah asli, Sains Malaysiana, 18(2), 99-109.
 Abadyan, M., Khademi, V., Bagheri, R., Kouchakzadeh, M.A. and Farsadi M. (2009). Use of rubber modification technique to improve fractureresistance of hoop wound composites, Materials and Design, 30, 1976-1984.
 Ismail Zainol, Mohamad Ibrahim Ahmad, Fadzil Ayad Zakaria, Anita Ramli, Haslan Fadli Ahmad Marzuki and Azizan Abdul Aziz (2006). Modification of epoxy resin using liquid natural rubber, Materials Science Forum, 517, 272-274.
 Valeria D. Ramos, Helson M. da Costa, Vera L.P. Soares and Regina S.V. Nascimento, (2005). Modification of epoxy resin: A comparison of different types of elastomer, Polymer Testing, 24, 387-394.
 Varaporn Tanrattanakul, Nutthorn Sungthong and Phatchareeya Raksa (2008). Rubber toughening of nylon 6 with epoxidized natural rubber, Polymer Testing, 27, 794-800.